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Westphalia, which means western plain, is the contemporary Bundesland, or state, of Nordrhein-Westfalen.After the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century, the Saxons inhabited the territories in north central Germany. The Congress of Vienna in 1814–15 restored most of old Westphalia to Prussia, which then established a province of Westphalia with its capital at Münster. Flemish influence is notable in the works of Tom Ring, who was a precursor of the still-life. [19][2], In 1816, the governmental districts of Arnsberg, Minden and Münster were created. The history of Westphalia, Michigan is long and rich, and it is one that is difficult to summarize in just a few pages. Some 20C masterpieces round off this wide-ranging collection. ___ Nordrhein-Westfalen A virtual guide to the German Federal State of Nordrhein-Westfalen. Germany: North Rhine-Westphalia, Westphalia Physical Description gold (overall material) Measurements overall:.13 cm x 2.89 cm; 1/16 in x 1 1/8 in ID Number NU.68.159.3582 catalog number 68.159.3582 accession number 283645 Credit Line Estate of Josiah K. Lilly Jr. [7][6] The Westphalian language, a variant of the German language, spreads beyond Westphalia's borders into southwestern Lower Saxony and northwestern Hesse. Search Europe Germany North Rhine-Westphalia North Rhine-Westphalia . [18], After the defeat of the Prussian Army by the French at the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt, the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807 made the easternmost portion of today's Westphalia part of the French client Kingdom of Westphalia until 1813. Corrections? These are genealogy links to Westphalia online databases to assist in researching your family history. The flag of the Prussian Province of Westphalia already displayed the colors white and red. In 1946, the state of North Rhine-Westphalia was created, which includes part of the historical region.. Westphalia is roughly the region between the rivers Rhine and Weser, north and south of the Ruhr River. Germany’s lands provided a constant battlefield for its warring superpower neighbors. Historic German Castle incorporating Hotel For Sale with Engel & Voelkers With over 738 m² of usable space and a land area of approx. 22,000 m², the Petershagen Palace conveys the extraordinary with its special ambience and is characterized by its style of the Weser Renaissance typical for its time. After World War II it was a part of the British occupation zone which merged with the American zone to become the Bizone in 1947 and again merged with the French zone to become the Trizone in 1948. Monty Python's Flying Circus – Series 4, Episode 3 – includes a sketch[21] that discusses a questionable map showing a Basingstoke in Westphalia (as opposed to the better-known Basingstoke in south-central England). Chr. All districts and independent cities of the governmental districts of Arnsberg and Münster are considered to be a part of Westphalia as a historic region. The Peace of Westphalia treaties … North Rhine-Westphalia (German: Nordrhein-Westfalen) is the federal state with the highest population in Germany.It is in the western part of Germany and has 18,033,000 inhabitants. The colors of Westphalia are white and red. They left Germany on October 5, 1836. 8,010 km2 (3,094 sq mi) Districts. It was chartered about 1300. I pay regular visits to the parish register archives in Paderborn, Münster and Bielefeld, as well as to the state archives in Detmold and Münster. These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic. The north of the ancient Westphalia (most of it Prussian since 1866) went to the Land of Lower Saxony; and Waldeck (attached to Prussian Hesse since 1929) became part of the new Land of Hesse. Janesville, Wisconsin: Origins Books, 2002) Size: 7,797 square miles (compared to Massachusetts at 7,826 square miles) RP online: Jeder kennt Westfalen — gibt es auch Ostfalen? German Genealogy Westfalen / Westphalia (Provinz / Province) [Presently in Nordrhein-Westfalen] Some basic facts about Westphalia: (from Uncapher, Wendy K. and Linda M. Herrick. Given below are the salient features of the Peace of Westphalia. The Leontine’s journey began in the port of Bremen, Germany and arrived in the Port of New York on October 5, 1836. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. ), LWL: Westfalen im konfessionellen Zeitalter, LWL: Vom feudalen zum modernen Westfalen 1770-1815, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Westphalia&oldid=989821366, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with bad settlement type, Pages using infobox settlement with possible demonym list, Articles containing Low German-language text, Articles containing potentially dated statements from December 2018, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with German-language sources (de), Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Welcome to our North Rhine-Westphalia family history research page. ___ Nordrhein-Westfalen A virtual guide to the German Federal State of Nordrhein-Westfalen. Emigration, Immigration, and Passenger Lists. The archbishops of Cologne received Westphalia as a duchy in 1180, but the duchy was in fact confined mainly to an area northeast of Cologne. North Rhine–Westphalia, German Nordrhein-Westfalen, Land (state) of western Germany.It is bordered by the states of Lower Saxony to the north and northeast, Hessen to the east, and Rhineland-Palatinate to the south and by the countries of Belgium to the southwest and the Netherlands to the west. 2,623,619 inhabitants (as of 31 December 2018[update])[5] Religious indifferences backed by political ambitions marred the relations between Lutheran Sweden and Catholic Poland, German Protestants and Catholics, and the Protestant Dutch and English against Catholic Spain. After in 1816, the former Duchy of Westphalia and the counties of Wittgenstein and in 1851 the condominium of Lippstadt had joined the province, Westphalia had received its modern territorial shape. The war or series of connected wars began in 1618, when the Austrian Habsburgs tried to impose Roman Catholicism on their Protestant subjects in Bohemia. Some of the tribes who fought at this battle came from the area of Westphalia. The resulting Peace of Westphalia contributed to the foundation of the modern European nation-state system. [8], Flat to hilly (498 m (1,634 ft) and under): East Westphalia, Münsterland, eastern Ruhr Metropolitan Area, Tecklenburg Land, Westphalian Hellweg, Hilly to mountainous (up to 843 m (2,766 ft)): Westphalian part of the Sauerland, Siegerland, Wittgenstein, Westphalia is roughly the region in between the rivers Rhine and Weser, located both north and south of the Ruhr River. Westphalia, German Westfalen, historic region of northwestern Germany, comprising a large part of the present federal Land (state) of North Rhine–Westphalia. This museum is the abode of the Gothic statuary of the cathedral and churches of Münster, a series of stained-glass windows and, above all, a stunning collection of altarpieces by the great Westphalian masters. The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster. This state shared only the name with the historical region, containing mostly Hessian and Eastphalian regions and only a relatively small part of the region of Westphalia.. The term "Westphalia" contrasts with the much less used term "Eastphalia", which roughly covers the southeastern part of the present-day state of Lower Saxony, western Saxony-Anhalt and northern Thuringia.[3][11]. In its long history, Germany has rarely been united. Composed in Iserlohn in 1886 by Emil Rittershaus, the Westfalenlied is an unofficial anthem of Westphalia. Migration in Preindustrial Germany in Central European History. Discover your westphalian roots. It is derived from the Saxon Steed in the coat of arms of the medieval Duchy of Saxony which most of today's Westphalia was part of. Numerous other political entities grew up in the region of Westphalia, among them the bishoprics of Münster, Paderborn, Osnabrück, and Minden; the countships of Waldeck, Schaumburg, Lippe, Ravensberg, and Mark (with Limburg); the imperial city of Dortmund; and the abbey of Essen. My research has been focussed in Westphalia. (all districts and independent cities), Governmental District of Detmold Siegen Weather History for the Previous 24 Hours Show weather for: Previous 24 hours October 20, 2020 October 19, 2020 October 18, 2020 October 17, 2020 October 16, 2020 October 15, 2020 October 14, 2020 October 13, 2020 October 12, 2020 October 10, 2020 October 9, 2020 October 8, 2020 October 7, 2020 October 6, 2020 October 5, 2020 Westphalia was a part of the old duchy of Saxony, which included most of the land between the Rhine and the Elbe between the 9th and 12th centuries. The ancient Saxons were divided into three main groups: the Westphalians, the Angrians (German: Engern), and the Eastphalians (Ostfalen). Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Religious indifferences backed by political ambitions marred the relations between Lutheran Sweden and Catholic Poland, German Protestants and Catholics, and the Protestant Dutch and English against Catholic Spain. Includes some German baptism, marriage, and death indexes, and other items. The coat of arms of North Rhine-Westphalia uses the Westphalian Steed to represent Westphalia as one of its parts alongside the Lippish Rose representing Lippe and the Rhine River representing the Northern Rhineland.[13]. The peace was negotiated, from 1644, in the Westphalian towns of Munster and Osnabruck. [19][2], After World War II in 1946, the present state of North Rhine-Westphalia was created by the British military government from the former Prussian Province of Westphalia and the northern half of the former Prussian Rhine Province. I had no idea that some of their digitized records for Germany/Prussia could only be viewed at their Family History Center. For most of the two millennia that Central Europe has been inhabited by German-speaking peoples, such as the Eastern Franks, the area now called Germany was divided into hundreds of states, many quite small, including duchies, principalities, free cities, and ecclesiastical states. The principle of cuius regio, eius religio('whoever rules the territory determines the religion') was reaffirmed, but construed to relate only to public life. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest took place near Osnabrück, which at this time was a place of settlement of the Westphalians, who were a part of the Germanic tribe of the Saxons. Only 8 years later, the construction of a new building to accommodate middle school students gave Westphalia School room for growth in its curriculum. Inhabitants of the region call themselves Westphalians and their home region Westphalia even though there is no administrative division by that name. Recklinghausen Weather History for the Previous 24 Hours Show weather for: Previous 24 hours November 29, 2020 November 28, 2020 November 27, 2020 November 26, 2020 November 25, 2020 November 24, 2020 November 23, 2020 November 22, 2020 November 21, 2020 November 20, 2020 November 19, 2020 November 18, 2020 November 17, 2020 November 16, 2020 November 15, 2020 … Westphalia History. Bocholt Weather History for the Previous 24 Hours Show weather for: Previous 24 hours November 30, 2020 November 29, 2020 November 28, 2020 November 27, 2020 November 26, 2020 November 25, 2020 November 24, 2020 November 23, 2020 November 22, 2020 November 21, 2020 November 20, 2020 November 19, 2020 November 18, 2020 November 17, 2020 November 16, 2020 November 15, … It has an area of 20,210 km2 (7,803 sq mi) and 7.9 million inhabitants. In the first place, rulers were encouraged to show a greater degree of tolerance towards the religious beliefs of their subjects. Münster and especially Paderborn were considered to be Catholic. In the early 19th century Germany was not a unified state, but rather a confederation of many small provinces. Westphalia was a part of the old duchy of Saxony, which included most of the land between the Rhine and the Elbe between the 9th and 12th centuries. Westphalia, German Westfalen, historic region of northwestern Germany, comprising a large part of the present federal Land (state) of North Rhine–Westphalia. Vol. This does not include all of the village history, but instead it highlights interesting points in its history, such as the emigration of the first German Catholic settlers and their establishment of a church in Westphalia. The different majorities date back to the days of the territorial fragmentation of the Holy Roman Empire (of the German Nation) which existed until 1806. [4], Westphalia is home to the headquarters of Westfalia-Werke, the contractor that built the Volkswagen Westfalia Campers.[20]. The Peace of Westphalia was signed simultaneously at Münster and Osnabrück on 24 October 1648 and consisted of 128 clauses. In the early 19th century Germany was not a unified state, but rather a confederation of many small provinces. Around 1 A.D. there were numerous incursions through Westphalia and perhaps even some permanent Roman or Romanized settlements. This map shows cities and towns in North Rhine-Westphalia. Westphalia is divided into three governmental districts. Widukind was buried in Enger, which is also a subject of a legend. 195-224 Hollanders. The Leontine’s journey began in the port of Bremen, Germany and arrived in the Port of New York on October 5, 1836. Originally, Westphalia formed with Angria and Eastphalia one of the three main regions of Saxony. History. A province of Prussia situated between the Rhine and the Weser. Find what to do today or anytime in December. : official web sites, local news, culture, history, education, city- and country guides with travel and visitors information, tourist attractions, events and much more. 1,706,919 inhabitants (as of 31 December 2018[update])[5] The constitution of North Rhine-Westphalia was then ratified through a referendum. Image of beautiful, outdoor, scenic - 91461393 The town’s first settlers came from Germany aboard a vessel called the Leontine. Napoleon Bonaparte founded the Kingdom of Westphalia, which was a client state of the First French Empire from 1807 to 1813. Candide: The protagonist of Voltaire's novella of the same name, resides in Westphalia in the beginning of the story. Germany - Germany - The Thirty Years’ War and the Peace of Westphalia: The Bohemian problem was resolved swiftly. Negotiations opened in the West German land of Westphalia in 1643. The Westphalia area of north-western Germany gave its name to the treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War, one of the most destructive conflicts in the history of Europe. State part and historic region of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, State part and historic region of North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, (der Westfale [male] / die Westfälin [female]), List of mountains and hills of North Rhine-Westphalia, LWL: Territorien > Preußische Provinz Westfalen, LWL: Westfalen in der unmittelbaren Nachkriegszeit, IT.NRW: Bevölkerungszahlen auf Basis des Zensus vom 9. The group consisted of leader, Father Anton Kopp and many others. Other important rivers are the Ems and the Lippe.[10]. The coat of arms of Lower Saxony uses a different version of the Saxon Steed since the state also covers large parts of the Old Saxons' duchy. North Rhine-Westphalia is divided into five government regions: . The main parts can be summarized as follows: 1. His Saxon Wars also partly took place in what is thought of as Westphalia today. German Maps & Facts for Genealogy. Westphalia is known for the 1648 Peace of Westphalia which ended the Thirty Years' War, as the two treaties were signed in Münster and Osnabrück. It is one of the regions that were part of all incarnations of the German state since the Early Middle Ages: the Holy Roman Empire, the Confederation of the Rhine, the German Confederation, the North German Confederation, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic and National Socialist Germany. Westphalia History. The District of Lippe as successor of the Free State of Lippe in the Governmental District of Detmold is rather considered to be a separate historic region. The flag of Lower Saxony shows the colors of Germany and the Saxon Steed. From 1644 to 1648 the Westphalian towns of Münster and Osnabrück hosted the peace conferences that settled the Eighty Years’ War and the German phase of the Thirty Years’ War. The Peace of Westphalia (German: Westfälischer Friede) is the collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster.They ended the Thirty Years' War and brought peace to the Holy Roman Empire, closing a calamitous period of European history that killed approximately eight million people. 16 No 3 (Sept 1983) pp. Website of Manfred Koellner (BA), historian and professional genealogist in Westphalia and Lippe, Germany. Westphalia is known for the 1648 Peace of Westphalia which ended the Thirty Years' War, as the two treaties were signed in Münster and Osnabrück. In total, North Rhine-Westphalia is subdivided into five governmental districts (Regierungsbezirke). The town’s first settlers came from Germany aboard a vessel called the Leontine. Lippe and Waldeck remained under sovereign princes; Hanover and Oldenburg were awarded their former lands. Calvinism was finally recognized within the Confession of Augsburg and, except within the Bavarian and Austrian lands (including Bohemia), Protestant retention of all land secularized … The Gau capital of Münster became the seat of SA Brigade 66, SA Standarte 13, SS Section XVII, SS Fußstandarte 19, HJ Area Management 9, BDM Top Performance 9 and other party authorities. The ancient Saxons were divided into three main groups: the Westphalians, the Angrians (German: Engern), and the Eastphalians (Ostfalen). The old governmental districts of 1816 stayed in place. That is why many of the citizens of North Rhine-Westphalia rather see themselves either as "Rhinelanders", "Westphalians" or "Lippers" rather than as "North Rhine-Westphalians". North Rhine–Westphalia, German Nordrhein-Westfalen, Land (state) of western Germany.It is bordered by the states of Lower Saxony to the north and northeast, Hessen to the east, and Rhineland-Palatinate to the south and by the countries of Belgium to the southwest and the Netherlands to the west. In 1989, Westphalia moved from the original three room building that dated back to 1919 into a new elementary building. Osnabrück went to Hanover and the rest of Münster to Oldenburg. Find what to do today or anytime in December. I can conduct research on your behalf in all the archives in Westphalia, relevant for family history research. Under the Nazis, Münster was the administrative seat of the Nazi district "Westphalia North". In the south the German Central Uplands emerge. The Kingdom of Westphalia was a short-lived state which existed from 1807 until 1813 in northern Germany. Governmental District of Arnsberg Cologne is the district's biggest city, and the capital is Dusseldorf. It was created by Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte of France for his brother Jerome. The sign detailing Westphalia’s origins that stands in front of St. Mary’s Church and school. Germany, selected Protestant church books 1518-1921 ($), index and images. From the early 17th century, the Hohenzollern rulers of Brandenburg-Prussia gained territories in Westphalia and became predominant there in 1803, when they acquired Paderborn and most of Münster. Westphalia is divided into the following landscapes. German Maps & Facts for Genealogy. In official contexts the coat of arms of Westphalia is being used by the Westphalia-Lippe Regional Association,[12] which represents these two historic parts of North Rhine-Westphalia. While this state shared its name with the historical region, it only contained a relatively small part of Westphalia, rather consisting of mostly Hessian and Eastphalian regions. These are subdivided into further districts and independent cities. We have reviews of the best places to see in North Rhine-Westphalia. Osnabrück was divided almost equally between Catholicism and Protestantism. The Westphalia area of north-western Germany gave its name to the treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War, one of the most destructive conflicts in the history of Europe. Almost 75 years after British forces first arrived in Germany, they remain stationed in the country’s most densely populated state, North Rhine-Westphalia. (geography, historical) A former realm of Germany 1759, George Sale et al., The Modern Part of an Universal History, volume XXIX: History of the German Empire, page 2: Westphalia (German: Westfalen) is a region in Germany.The cities of Arnsberg, Bielefeld, Bochum, Detmold, Dortmund, Gelsenkirchen, Hagen, Minden and Münster are in its centre. The German states were affected in different ways by the Treaty of Westphalia, but the general trend was for the larger ones to grow more powerful at the expense of the smaller and weaker administrative units. In the 12th century the old distinction between Westphalians and Angrians fell into disuse, and all Saxony west of the Weser River came to be called Westphalia. Germany Nationwide Records Websites [edit | edit source] German Emigrant Data Base,covers 1820-1939, main source: New York passenger lists beginning in 1820, supplemented by material found in Germany, ($) Things to Do in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany: See Tripadvisor's 207,173 traveler reviews and photos of North Rhine-Westphalia tourist attractions. The Duchy of Westphalia comprised only a small area south of the Lippe River.[3]. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/place/Westphalia. Landtag NRW: Das Wappen des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, LWL: Westfalen zur Zeit der Germanen und Römer, LWL: Die Zeit der römischen Feldzüge in Germanien (12 v.-16 n. Lutheranism was strong in the eastern and northern parts with numerous free churches. At the same time, Hesse-Darmstadt acquired Cologne’s part of Westphalia. Incomplete. Network Westphalian America emigration since the 19th century, Index. Westphalia is often known as a German community. In 1947, the state with its two historic parts was joined by a third one: Lippe, a former principality and free state. I thought that only applied to microfilm records. [9], Being a part of the North German Plain, most of Westphalia's north is flat. The Treaty of Westphalia is signed, ending the Thirty Years' War and radically shifting the balance of power in Europe.. The Treaty of Westphalia definitely improved the religious situation in Germany, and introduced a more rational and stable settlement. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Following the deposition of the Saxon duke Henry the Lion in 1180 and the subsequent belittlement of the duchy, Westphalia was elevated to a duchy in its own right by Emperor Barbarossa. (all districts and independent cities except District of Lippe), Governmental District of Münster In addition to these historic, lingual and religious aspects, there are some regional differences in culture and mentality. Popular legends link his adversary Widukind to places near Detmold, Bielefeld, Lemgo, Osnabrück and other places in Westphalia. 3,582,497 inhabitants (as of 31 December 2018[update])[5] The flag of the Westphalia-Lippe Regional Association uses these colors with the Westphalian coat of arms in its center. Gauleiter Meyer was appointed Upper President of Westphalia. The Kingdom of Westphalia was a kingdom in Germany, with a population of 2.6 million, that existed from 1807 to 1813. In 1946 the province of Westphalia, together with Lippe, was incorporated in the Land of North Rhine–Westphalia. Photo about The historic Castle Huelshoff in Westphalia, Muensterland, Germany. Updates? German Genealogy Nordrhein-Westfalen Nordrhein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia) (includes the former Prussian province of Westfalen, the northern portion of the Prussian Rheinprovinz, and the principality of Lippe [Detmold]) Alte Sterkrade - Pictures from a coal mining town in the North Rhine-Westphalia area. 1950s: The history of Westfalia conversions began in 1951 with one customer’s special wish. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Steve Hochstadt. Düsseldorf Weather History for the Previous 24 Hours Show weather for: Previous 24 hours November 19, 2020 November 18, 2020 November 17, 2020 November 16, 2020 November 15, 2020 November 14, 2020 November 13, 2020 November 12, 2020 November 11, 2020 November 10, 2020 November 9, 2020 November 8, 2020 November 7, 2020 November 6, 2020 November 5, 2020 November 4, 2020 Beckum Weather History for the Previous 24 Hours Show weather for: Previous 24 hours November 17, 2020 November 16, 2020 November 15, 2020 November 14, 2020 November 13, 2020 November 12, 2020 November 11, 2020 November 10, 2020 November 9, 2020 November 8, 2020 November 7, 2020 November 6, 2020 November 5, 2020 November 4, 2020 November 3, 2020 November 2, 2020 [8], Previous to the formation of Westphalia as a province of Prussia and later state part of North Rhine-Westphalia, the term "Westphalia" was applied to different territories of different sizes such as a part of the ancient Duchy of Saxony, the Duchy of Westphalia or the Kingdom of Westphalia. This continues to influence the identity of its people who often distinguish themselves from neighboring regions such as East Westphalia.[7]. The Kingdom of Westphalia, which he created for his brother Jérôme, was made up largely of Prussian and Hanoverian possessions between the Weser and the Elbe rivers and the greater part of electoral Hesse; its capital was Kassel. While in Westphalia and Lippe, people tend to speak West Low German dialects and especially the Westphalian variant of the Low German language, Central German and Low Franconian dialects are spoken in the Northern Rhineland. [16][17], Charlemagne is thought to have spent considerable time in Paderborn and nearby parts. [3], Along with Eastphalia, Angria and Nordalbingia, Westphalia (Westfalahi) was originally a district of the Duchy of Saxony. The mainly Lutheran Lippe was even able to retain its independence as a small state within Germany in the form of a principality until 1918 and as a free state until 1946. Westfalen / Westphalia (Provinz / Province) [Presently in Nordrhein-Westfalen] Some basic facts about Westphalia: (from Uncapher, Wendy K. and Linda M. Herrick. The first settlers of Westphalia came over across the ocean from Germany in 1836. Mai 2011, LWL: Niederdeutsche Sprache – westfälische Mundarten, LWL: Gewässerbildung und Systeme der natürlichen Fließgewässer in Westfalen. [19], Following to the Congress of Vienna, Prussia received a large amount of territories in the Westphalian region and created the Province of Westphalia in 1815. Beside a state profile, this page offers links to sources that provide you with information about this "Bundesland", e.g. : official web sites, local news, culture, history, education, city- and country guides with travel and visitors information, tourist attractions, events and much more. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Ruhr valley became very densely populated and the single most heavily industrialized area in the world. Throughout its history, Westphalia has constructed several buildings. Search Europe Germany North Rhine-Westphalia North Rhine-Westphalia . On 21 January 1947, the former state of Lippe was merged with North Rhine-Westphalia. The Peace of Westphalia of 1648, signed in Münster and Osnabrück, ended the Thirty Years' War. While the Northern Rhineland, Westphalia and Lippe are different historic territories of today's North Rhine-Westphalia, the old border between the former Rhine Province and the Province of Westphalia is also a language border. Since, if one side was winning, it was a lot less likely to make concessions and vice versa.

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